In this presentation I will outline what I consider to be a crisis on Second Language Studies (SLS) regarding the relationship between the so-called cognitive orientation and the role of social factors in understanding the process of Second Language Acquisition (SLA). The core of the crisis, as I see it, is that researchers are struggling with the problem of how to interrelate what they perceive to be dichotomous components that play a role in the acquisition process. Those supporting a cognitive orientation believe that key to understanding SLA resides in the mind/brain of individuals, while those supporting a social orientation argue for integrating, in some way, the influence of social activity into the process. Various proposals have been suggested by researchers for how to overcome the dichotomy. I will review some of these in the presentation before offering what I consider to be a potential solution to the problem—one grounded in Vygotsky’s theory of general psychology. As a general theory designed to account for human psychological development and functioning, it must be able to explain a process such as second language development and functioning within its overall framework.